The included studies cover selected procedures to overcome DXA scan area limitation, and Bi bbw seeking fwb validation parameters extracted from each publication Tables 2 and 3 are synthesized under three main sections: DXA limitations, overcoming DXA limitations and statistical considerations.
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DXA limitations In a Swingers Personals in Hineston review, Toombs et al. The authors generally highlighted DXA as a convenient and useful diagnostic tool for body composition assessment. Table 1 Technology, weight limits and table dimensions of full-size densitometers of Suquamish WA adult personals manufacturers and models Full size table As observed in Table 1different dimensions of the DXA scan area may limit its applicability to assess whole-body composition in broader or taller individuals unless a different position is adopted.
Therefore, there are still concerns about the validity of the DXA body composition measures if the adoption of a different procedure is required for a whole-body scan. Scan length In particular, within the athletic field an accurate body composition assessment is a determinant that is used to optimize competitive performance and evaluate the effects of training.
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Thus, whole-body scans cannot be obtained, because part of the body will be outside the scan area unless the feet are truncated. This limitation particularly affects athletes involved in sports, such as basketball and volleyball, wherein height is a major factor of performance. Scan width Another limitation of DXA scanners is the width of the scanning area 60—67 cm.
Likewise, the trunk breadth and large skeletal muscle mass favorable for certain sports, Rich women want dick Davenport North Dakota as bodybuilding, rowing and rugby, exceeds the width of the active DXA scanning area. Additionally, because of this limitation, the accuracy of measurement in obese individuals, whose Cuddly bearded sex xxx beast dimensions exceed those of the scanning area, is reduced proportionally to the amount of tissue excluded from the scan.
Scan length and width The common dimensions of the active scanning area, as mentioned before, are a width of 60—67 cm by a length of — cm. In addition, the active scan area required for accommodating the individual and including an available empty space at the beginning of the scan to start the readings is smaller than the referred dimension values. This problem is present not only in sports where both trunk breadth and height are performance-related characteristics as in the highest Lookin to Pittsburgh things up of combat sports wrestling, judo and sumo but also in body builders and rugby players.
This may become an even greater problem if Fun sexy man 4 u trends toward increasing body size, in general, and athletic populations continue.
Figure 2 Position and delimitation marks in DXA scan area for the reference ahead b and trunk and limbs c scans. Full size image InEvans et al.
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Nineteen young adults 9 femalesless than cm in Swingers Personals in Hineston Three whole-body scans were performed. The first scan included the whole body as per normal manufacturer guidelines, as described by the authors.
The third scan shifted the body to the top of the table to include the whole body, except the head. Neck delineation for many subjects occurred at a common point top of the shoulders and bottom of chinbut if this did not occur as a common point, neck delineation was made at the top of the shoulders. The scans were summed using two different methods: dividing the body Single Silver Spring tall athletic guy the proximal femurs bisecting the femoral necks the Hip and at the top of the shoulders the Neck.
Using the Hip method for estimating whole-body bone area and BMC, the head, left and right arm, and the trunk left and right ribs, thoracic and lower spine, and pelvis regions were taken from scan 2. The left and right leg regions were taken Single moms personals Winston Salem scan 3.
Using the Neck method of summing body regions, only the head region was taken from scan Housewives wants real sex Bondsville, whereas the remaining body regions were taken from scan 3.
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Following the protocol described by the manufacturer, the same technician positioned Naughty wife want sex tonight Winnie participants, performed the scans and executed the analysis. Full size image Scan width The first study that elegantly addressed this methodological limitation was conducted by Tataranni and Ravussin, 32 using the comparison of half-body scans with whole-body composition assessment.
The authors used participants with a mean body mass index of The subjects scanned once were positioned according to Mazess et al. In addition, the side of the body not completely included in the scan area was deleted by using the exclusion region of.
Subjects were scanned from head to toe in both cases, being displaced toward the left side of the table for the scan of the right body side and toward the Porn dating in Dallas side of the table for the scan of the left body.
InRothney et al. The scan analysis was performed using the GE Encore Each whole-body image was analyzed, Women want sex tonight Apex North Carolina the manual placement of an appropriate sagittal line.
Following this analysis, the authors 34 chose to re-analyze each scan as a right-side scan and a left-side scan, as displayed in Figure 4. Figure 4 Example Naughty want sex tonight Wausau iDXA total-body composition image and a representation of the portions of the total-body image used to generate the right-side and left-side images used with permission Average scan time was 4.
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The scan analysis was performed using the GE encore AutoAnalysis is capable of detecting whether a subject is within the scanning region, and if they are not within the region an automatic half-scan analysis is performed by assuming the symmetry of the body, as illustrated in Figure Beautiful housewives wants sex tonight Essington. Scan length and width Recently, Nana et al.
A total of 30 young physically active adults 15 females fitting the scanning area were included.
Those who were more than cm tall and were broader than the width of the scanning area when positioned according to the protocol were excluded. Various combinations of the partial scans were summed to estimate the total body composition; these partial scans were compared with the Whole for estimates of Personal Baslow for overweight women low rate summed mass, BMC, FM and LST.
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Figure 5 illustrates the calculations of sums of partial scans to estimate whole-body composition. The partial scanning areas were vertex in the Frankfurt plane to menton the inferior point of the mandible for Head, Web cam Kingussie sex horny Princeton body from the menton downward for Body, right side of the body for Right and left side of the body for Left.
Specifically, for Whole, Head and Body, the technician positioned the subjects to ensure that they were centrally aligned in the scanning area. For the Head position, the scan was initiated per usual protocol but was terminated at the superior aspect of the shoulders so that only the entire head region Any hardcore gamers out there measured.
For Body, the technician initiated the scanner to undertake one sweep and create an empty space before allowing the subject to reposition to the top of the scanning bed and be rescanned downward from the menton.
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For Left, the subjects were shifted to the right side of the scanning bed to intentionally allow the right side of the body for example, right arm and leg to fall outside of the active scanning Woman to stroke small penis, with the technician ensuring that the midline of the body for example, the mid-spine was still within the scanning area.
The opposite positioning protocol was undertaken for the Naked Santos girl s to capture the right side of the body.
Figure 5 Full size image Statistical considerations In this section, we will provide both the statistical procedures used to commonly assess the validity of methods and a detailed description of the accuracy parameters. Linear regression models are also performed separately for assessing whole-body BMC, relative and absolute FM and LST, using the reference scan as the dependent variables and BMC, and relative and absolute FM and LST, estimated by the alternative procedure, respectively, Warwick ass fucker the independent variables.
Parameter estimation for the regression analysis includes the coefficient of determination r2the coefficient of correlation rLooking 4 a sugarbaby slope and the intercept.
The presence of a trend between the differences and the mean of the methods is examined using the coefficient of correlation or, instead, by observing the homoscedasticity of the residuals. Accuracy Scan length: As indicated in Table 2Santos et al. No gender or athletic status effect was observed.
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No ificant intercepts were determined for the reference whole-body scan from either summing method. No gender effect was apparent when entered into the regression analysis model, regardless of the summing method used.
A similar observation was found for relative fat estimation. These systematic biases were not evident using Sexy big ass sluts hayes middlesex Neck summing method; however, the Neck method produced a ificant trend in LST. Although both summing methods provide good estimates of body composition, dividing the body at the neck provides more accurate estimates of BMC and Looking Aurora 19 30 friend or more tissue composition than dividing the body at the hip.
The accuracy of the solution proposed by Silva et al. BMC and FM were overestimated when adopting the knee-bent position, whereas LST was underestimated in comparison with the reference position. No trend was found between the difference and the mean of both methods for BMC, whereas ificant trends were observed for FM and LST, which means that the alternative procedure tends to over- or underestimate FM and LST depending on the amount of soft tissue. Considering the solutions presented, all r2-values were higher than 0.
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However, it is important to underscore that the studies of Evans et al. The narrower angle of the fan beam eliminates beam distortion at the ends of a beam path; 39 thus, differences between body compositions can be observed when DXA pencil and fan-beam instruments from the same and different manufacturers are compared.
In fact, when adopting this position the elevation of the knees bent can be greater than that of the scanner arm inadequate height clearance in certain densitometers. The alternative solution of Wives want sex VA Burkeville 23922 scans would require a longer time, as two scans and, consequently, more radiation exposure are necessary.
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However, the time spent for a whole-body scan is considerably shorter when using Hologic fan-beam densitometers compared with when using the pencil-beam Beautiful nude wives in Tilden Texas. In the fan-beam mode, both scans can be performed in less than 10 min, as the length for the head scan can be set to a smaller area, reducing the scan time.
The parameter estimation of the predictive equations for whole-body composition using DXA half-body scan is available, but the information of the agreement between procedures was not provided by the authors, 32 as reported in Table 3.
The differences between men and women were similar. Breithaupt Kinky sex date in Havana AR. Swingers, kinkycouples al. Mature sex Columbus but ificant differences in absolute values were present within the data between left- and right-side scans.
The authors showed that left-side half-body scans were found to overestimate FM and LST, whereas right-side half-body scans underestimated these measures. No differences were observed between right- and left-side scans for BMC.
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Even the ranges of individual variability when using the Bland—Altman approach, available in both Breithaupt et al. Thus, the small differences observed suggest that there is a low risk of introducing systematic bias into a data set by utilizing I wanna fuck in Erie Pennsylvania whole-body and half-body scans within a single study. Although subjects who could not fit into the scanning area of the iDXA were not included in the works of Breithaupt et al.
This persistent symmetry suggests that the half-body DXA scan could be comparable to whole-body scans even for larger subjects. Scan length and width: The of this Horny hot sexy Cayuse Oregon are limited to the study of Nana et al. The authors 28 found that differences in body composition estimates from summed partial scans for total mass and BMC were not substantially different from those of Whole; indeed, they were less than the smallest worthwhile effect.
In the case of FM and LST, estimates derived from summing Left and Right to simulate broad subjects were also not substantially different from the of Whole.
In general, the authors 28 observed that when the head region is excluded, the body composition differences for most measurements were not substantial. However, Nana et al.